【学术】论文写作葵花宝典

深度学习自然语言处理 | 每天干货知识,期待与你相遇! 2020/01/16 22:58

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来自:夕小瑶的卖萌屋


新知图谱, 【学术】论文写作葵花宝典

作者:小鹿鹿鹿


论文写作套路



老板说: 写论文是有 套路

老板说: introduction写好了,论文就成功了一半

老板说: 你的motivation是什么,contribution又是啥?

小夕说: 写论文的301天,每日三省吾身

我的motivation是什么?
我的contribution是什么?
在introduction中表述清楚我的motivation和contribution了吗?

所以说: Introduction的重要性不言而喻,作为论文的第一印象,很大程度上决定了审稿人阅读这篇paper时的心情。


话不多说,直接上!干!货!来看看introduction的写作套路叭。

  1. 首先开篇表明文章研究的问题是什么,阐明这个问题的 重要性

  2. 简述过去的工作,这里可以是比较宽泛的介绍,比如分了什么流派呀,主干方法是什么呀。(话锋一转)虽然过去的工作做的非常好,但是还存在哪些哪些问题,这些都非常的challenge。突出问题的 难度

  3. 针对某某问题,我们是怎么做的,为什么要这么做,这么做的好处是什么,进一步阐明 motivation

  4. 前面晓之以理,动之以情,现在可以把实验结果狠狠的砸向审稿人啦!清晰的写明论文取得的效果,分点阐述本篇文章的contribution。contribution一般两点到三点就ok,如果有某一点的贡献非常突出,有两点就非常充分啦~~

  5. 终于梳理完了文中最重要的部分[]~( ̄▽ ̄)~*



论文写作的葵花 宝典



路人甲:小夕小夕,虽然我都清楚自己要写什么了(in mind),但是我的英语{{{(>_<)}}}

不慌不慌!学术英语写作跟中学英语作文还是差别很大的,刚开始写paper很容易写成夕小瑶风格,甚至可能插一个可爱的小姐姐进去╮( ̄▽ ̄"")╭


新知图谱, 【学术】论文写作葵花宝典


不用担心!小夕把秘藏已久的论文写作葵花宝典献上~

Academic Phrasebank

( http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/ )

对于写作新手来说就是一个神器,按类目收集了很多论文中的常用表达。

适用于Introduction
当我们需要表达我们研究的问题多么多么重要的时候,可以这么写:
  • X is fundamental to ...

  • X ha s a pivotal role in …

  • X is frequently prescribed for …

  • X is fast becoming a key instrument in …

  • X plays a vital role in the metabolism of …

  • Xs have emerged as powerful platforms for …

  • X is essential for a wide range of technologies.

  • X can play an important role in addressing the issue of …

  • Xs are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents known.

阐述过去的工作时候,可以这么写:

  • Recent evidence suggests that …
  • Extensive research has shown that …
  • Studies of X show the importance of …
  • It has previously been observed that …
  • Several attempts have been made to …
  • P revious research has established that …
  • Previous research comparing X and Y has found …
  • The existing body of research on X suggests that …
  • There is a growing body of literature that recognises …
  • Existing research recognises the critical role played by …
过去的工作存在哪些问题,可以这么写:
  • Previous studies of X have not dealt with …
  • Researchers have not treated X in much detail.
  • Such expositions are unsatisfactory because they …
  • Most studies in the field of X have only focused on …
  • Such approaches, however, have failed to address …
  • Previous published studies are limited to local surveys.
  • Half of the studies evaluated failed to specify whether …
  • The research to date has tended to focus on X rather than Y.
  • Previously published studies on the effect of X are not consistent.

阐述文章motivation时,可以这么写:
  • The specific objective of this study was to …
  • An objective of this study was to investigate …
  • This thesis will examine the way in which the …
  • This study set out to investigate the usefulness of …
  • This dissertation seeks to explain the development of …
  • This prospective study was designed to investigate the use of …
  • This thesis intends to determine the extent to which … and whether …
  • This dissertation aims to unravel some of the mysteries surrounding …
  • Drawing upon two strands of research into X, this study attempts to …
  • This study therefore set out to assess the effect of X …, and the effect of …
  • There are two primary aims of this study: 1. To investigate … 2. To ascertain …
  • One purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which these factors were …

简单阐明工作怎么做的时候,可以这么说:
  • Five works will be examined, all of which …
  • This study was exploratory and interpretative in nature.
  • This study uses a qualitative case study approach to investigate …
  • Qualitative and quantitative research designs were adopted to provide …
  • A holistic approach is utilised, integrating X, Y and Z material to establish …
  • The study was conducted in the form of a survey, with data being gathered via …
  • The methodological approach taken in this study is a mixed methodology based on …
  • A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches was used in the data analysis.

自己的实验结果和贡献,可以这么夸:
  • This is the first study to …
  • This study provides new insights into …
  • This work will generate fresh insight into …
  • The study offers some important insights into …
  • Understanding the link between X and Y will help …
  • The importance and originality of this study are that it explores …
  • The findings should make an important contribution to the field of ….
  • Characterisation of X is important for our increased understanding of …
  • This project provided an important opportunity to advance the understanding of …
  • There are several important areas where this study makes an original contribution to …
  • The experimental work presented here provides one of the first investigations into how …

适用于Related Work

开头总述研究问题,可以这么引入:

  • Research into X has a long history.
  • For many years, this phenomenon was surprisingly neglected by …
  • Only in the past ten years have studies of X directly addressed how …
  • Prior to the work of Smith (1983), the role of X was largely unknown.
  • Over the past decade, most research in X has emphasized the use of …
  • In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on …
  • Early examples of research into X include … (Smith, 1962; Jones, 1974).
  • During the past 30 years, much more information has become available on …
  • The first serious discussions and analyses of X emerged during the 1970s with …
  • Over the past two decades, major advances in molecular biology have allowed …
  • Historically, research investigating the factors associated with X has focused on …


过去的研究是怎么做的,可以这么介绍:

  • Most research on X has been carried out in …

  • Most researchers investigating X have utilised …

  • Using this approach, researchers have been able to …

  • Several systematic reviews of X have been undertaken.

  • The vast majority of studies on X have been quantitative.

  • What we know about X is largely based on observational studies.

  • There are a number of large cross-sectional studies which suggest …

  • Much of the previous research on X has been exploratory in nature.

  • Much of the X research has focused on identifying and evaluating the …

  • What we know about X is largely based upon empirical studies that investigate how …

  • Publications that concentrate on X more frequently adopt a historical or chronological approach …

过去的工作取得了哪些结果或者进展,可以这么写:

  • Several lines of evidence suggest that …

  • Previous research has established that …

  • Data from several studies suggest that …

  • It is now well established from a variety of studies that …

  • A number of studies have postulated a convergence between …

  • Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) have shown that …

  • Many recent studies (e.g. Smith, 2001; Jones, 2005) have shown that …

  • Traditionally, it has been argued that … (e.g. Smith, 1960; Jones, 1972).

  • Several biographies of Brown have been published. Smith (2013) presents …

  • In previous studies on X, different variables have been found to be related to …

对过去工作的总结,可以这么说:
  • Together, these studies indicate that …

  • Overall, these studies highlight the need for …

  • Considering all of this evidence, it seems that …

  • Collectively, these studies outline a critical role for…

  • In all the studies reviewed here, X is recognised as …

  • The evidence presented in this section suggests that …

  • The studies presented thus far provide evidence that …

  • Taken together, these studies support the notion that …

  • Overall, there seems to be some evidence to indicate that …

  • Together these studies provide important insights into the …

  • All of the studies reviewed here support the hypothesis that …

  • Two important themes emerge from the studies discussed so far:

  • However, such studies remain narrow in focus dealing only with …

  • The evidence reviewed here seems to suggest a pertinent role for …

  • These studies clearly indicate that there is a relationship between …

  • In view of all that has been mentioned so far, one may suppose that …

  • There remain several aspects of X about which relatively little is known.

适用于Experiment

描述图表中的实验结果,可以这么说:

  • What stands out in the table is …
  • Closer inspection of the table shows …
  • It is apparent from this table that very few …
  • The most interesting aspect of this graph is …
  • In Fig.10 there is a clear trend of decreasing …
  • What is interesting about the data in this table is that …
  • The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4.
  • From the chart, it can be seen that by far the greatest demand is for …
  • This table is quite revealing in several ways. First, unlike the other tables …
  • From the data in Figure 9, it is apparent that the length of time left between …
  • Data from this table can be compared with the data in Table 4.6 which shows …
  • As Table III shows, there is a significant difference (t = -2.15, p = 0.03) between the two groups.

正向的实验结果,可以这么说:
  • Further analysis showed that …
  • Further statistical tests revealed …
  • On average, Xs were shown to have …
  • Strong evidence of X was found when …
  • This result is significant at the p = 0.05 level.
  • The results, as shown in Table 1, indicate that …
  • A positive correlation was found between X and Y.
  • There was a significant positive correlation between …
  • The difference between the X and Y groups was significant.
  • There was a significant difference in X, t(11) = 2.906, p<0.01
  • There was a significant difference between the two conditions …
  • Respondents who reported low levels of X also reported significantly lower levels of Y.

负向的实验结果,可以这么来:

  • No increase in X was detected.

  • No difference greater than X was observed.

  • No significant differences were found between …

  • None of these differences were statistically significant.

  • No significant difference between the two groups was evident.

  • X appeared to be unaffected by Y.

  • Only trace amounts of X were detected in …

  • There was no evidence that X has an influence on …

  • A clear benefit of X in the prevention of Y could not be identified in this analysis.

对实验结果的总结,可以这样子:
  • These results suggest that …
  • Overall, these results indicate that …
  • In summary, these results show that …
  • In summary, for the informants in this study, …
  • Together these results provide important insights into …
  • Taken together, these results suggest that there is an association between …
  • The results in this chapter indicate that … The next chapter, therefore, moves on to discuss the …

适用于Conclusion
复述论文的motivation,可以这么说:
  • This study set out to …

  • This paper has argued that …

  • This essay has discussed the reasons for …

  • In this investigation, the aim was to assess …

  • The aim of the present research was to examine …

  • The purpose of the current study was to determine …

  • The main goal of the current study was to determine …

  • This project was undertaken to design … and evaluate …

  • The present study was designed to determine the effect of …

  • The second aim of this study was to investigate the effects of …

总结文章的结果或者结论,可以这么说:
  • This study has identified …

  • This study has shown that …

  • The research has also shown that …

  • The second major finding was that …

  • These experiments confirmed that …

  • This study has found that generally …

  • The investigation of X has shown that …

  • The results of this investigation show that …

  • The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that …

  • The relevance of X is clearly supported by the current findings.

  • One of the more significant findings to emerge from this study is that …

强调contribution,可以这么来:
  • The findings will be of interest to …
  • This thesis has provided a deeper insight into …
  • The study contributes to our understanding of …
  • These results add to the rapidly expanding field of …
  • This project is the first comprehensive investigation of …
  • The insights gained from this study may be of assistance to …
  • This paper contributes to recent historiographical debates concerning …
  • This approach will prove useful in expanding our understanding of how …
  • The findings from this study make several contributions to the current literature. First,…
  • These findings contribute in several ways to our understanding of X and provide a basis for …

简单说一下工作的不足(不用太过于谦虚哦):
  • A limitation of this study is that …
  • Being limited to X, this study lacks …
  • The major limitation of this study is the …
  • This study was limited by the absence of …
  • X makes these findings less generalisable to …
  • The scope of this study was limited in terms of …
  • An issue that was not addressed in this study was whether…

畅想future work,可以这么写:
  • The question raised by this study is …
  • The study should be repeated using …
  • This would be a fruitful area for further work.
  • Several questions still remain to be answered.
  • More broadly, research is also needed to determine …
  • A further study could assess the long-term effects of …
  • The precise mechanism of X in insects remains to be elucidated.
  • These findings provide the following insights for future research: …
  • The issue of X is an intriguing one which could be usefully explored in further research.


哦啦,所谓授之以鱼不如授之以渔,小夕只能帮你到这里啦~fighting!!

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